In the ten years of being a paranormal researcher there have been certain urban legends and folktales that have achieved a twisted sense of immortality despite their concocted convoluted nature. From HIV needles on gas pump handles, to the one about President Obama being a Muslim, even so far as Roswell and the infamous UFO cover up that was supposed to have happened there. People love to believe a good story and more importantly they love to be scared.
Terrified in fact.
It’s a perverse pleasure we all take. Just look at our collection of horror movies in the last century and the uncountable stories across cultures that we have churned out over the entire span of human existence. There are monsters of every shape and size, acts of violence and terror that would chill even the most hardy soul to the bone.
Sometimes however, the monster comes in a guise that appears innocent but in fact is so insidious as to set every hair on our heads and bodies on end as a raging ice storm of a chill shoots down our spine to our toes and our mental alarm bells begin to scream: RUN.
One of the most infamous instances of such a creature of urban legend are the black eyed children. The black eyed children are supposedly otherwise normal looking children ranging in ages from five or six to their mid teens. Some have been described as wearing white bed clothes, normal attire or as having pale skin with the pallor of death upon it. One key feature however remains constant about the appearance of these creatures: their eyes. Their eyes always appear as jet black pools of inky darkness with no discernable sclera, iris or pupil.
According to the urban legends, these black eyed creatures appear to the unwary, often late at night, knocking on doors and windows asking in monotonous voices to be let in or giggling in a high pitched tone as if they know something funny that would most likely curdle your blood. The most repeated advice to those who are rapt in attention to the tale of the BEK’s as they are called is to ignore them, slam the door in their face and walk away as it would imperil your very soul to acquiesce to their siren call.
In all the ten years I have been investigating, I have never once encountered a black eyed kid or a black eyed entity that even resembled the urban legend. In fact, I rarely heard of them until about two maybe three years ago and then it was sporadic and in 2013, the number of reports and stories spiked like Walmart sales on Black Friday: through the roof. So what are black eyed kids? Is there a rational explanation for them? If not, then what could be the source of these creepy little ghouls?
The origin of the tale of the black eyed kids is very hard to pin down to an exact origin point or a single source. The stories about them began slowly at first back in the mid to late 1990s across internet message boards which were at the time, the Facebook or MySpace of the day. For years the message boards were lit up with stories of encounters and as the internet grew in scope becoming more and more integrated into our lives it also began to shape our experiences and the frames of reference in which we put things into.
While difficult to pin down the exact origin of the black eyed kids stories, one source may have in fact been the spark that lit the flames of legend, and that was the story of Brian Bethel, an Internet blogger/journalist who claims his was the first black eyed kid encounter. It happened in 1996 in Abilene, Texas. Bethel’s encounter took place in the spring or summer of that year he reports:
“….I had gone down to the former site of Camalott Communications, one of the area’s original Internet providers, to pay my bill. At the time, Camalott was located on North 1st Street, near the movie theater, in the shadow of what is now Chase, then Bank One.
I was using the light of the theater’s marquee to write out my check, which I planned to put in Camalott’s night drop-slot. Involved in my work, I never heard them approach.
There was a knock on my driver’s side window. Two young boys, somewhere between nine to 12 years old and dressed in hooded pullovers, stood outside.
I cracked the window a bit, anticipating a spiel for money, but I was immediately gripped by an incomprehensible, soul-wracking fear. I had no idea why.
A conversation ensued between one boy, a somewhat suave, olive-skinned, curly-headed young man, and myself. The other, a redheaded, pale-skinned, freckled young man, stayed in the background.
The “spokesman,” as I’ve come to think of him, told me that he and his companion needed a ride. They wanted to see a movie, “Mortal Kombat,” but they had left their money at their mother’s house. Could I give them a ride?
Plausible enough. But all throughout this exchange, the irrational fear continued and grew. I had no reason to be frightened of these two boys, but I was. Terribly.
After a bit more conversation, I looked up at the theater marquee and down at the digital clock display in my car.
Mortal Kombat’s last show of the night had already started. By the time I could have driven the boys anywhere and back, it would practically have been over.
All the while, the spokesman uttered assurances:
It wouldn’t take long.
They were just two little kids.
They didn’t have a gun or anything.
The last part was a bit unnerving.
I noticed that my hand had strayed toward the lock on my door. I pulled it away, perhaps a bit too violently.
In the short time I had broken the gaze of the spokesman, something had changed, and my mind exploded in a vortex of all-consuming terror.
Both boys stared at me with coal-black eyes. The sort of eyes one sees these days on aliens or bargain-basement vampires on late night television. Soulless orbs like two great swathes of starless night.
I did what I feel any rational person would do. I full-on freaked out inside while trying to appear completely sane and calm.
I apologized to the kids. I made whatever excuses came to mind, all of them designed to get me the hell out of there. Fast. The aura of fear was now a palpable, black-hanging thing, almost as if reality itself was warping around me.
I wrapped my hand around the gearshift, threw the car into reverse and began to roll up the window, apologizing all the while.
My fear must have been evident. The boy in the back wore a look of confusion. The spokesman banged sharply on the window as I rolled it up. His words, full of anger, echo in my mind even today:
“We can’t come in unless you tell us it’s OK. Let us in!”
I drove out of the parking lot in blind fear, and I’m surprised I didn’t sideswipe a car or two along the way. I stole a quick look in my rearview mirror before peeling out into the night. The boys were gone. Even if they had run, I don’t believe there was anyplace they could have hidden from view that quickly.
I write for a lot of reasons. I’d do it even if I didn’t get paid to do so.
So I wrote down the story of what had happened, more or less as a cathartic exercise, and shared it with a small group of friends on an email list.
From there, it got out onto the wider Internet. And grew. And grew. And grew. Type my name in Google, you’ll find it soon enough.
In time, there was a term coined for what I’d seen: BEKs, Black-Eyed Kids. I wouldn’t have chosen it, personally, but it’s the acronym the Internet knows.
I’m pretty easy to track down, and so I still get calls, emails and inquiries from people all over the world who want to know more about what I saw, what I think they were, and what the encounter means in some cosmic sense.
I’ve been contacted by everyone from Korean television stations planning New Year’s Eve shows to regular people who just wanted to talk.
More interesting to me has been sporadic, but more than occasional, contact from people who think they may have seen something similar.
Some narratives follow the template of my original encounter a bit too slavishly, and those are easy to dismiss. But others have a more-than-subtle ring of the same sort of panic and helplessness I felt.
Similar experiences have been now in places from suburban neighborhoods to your standard dark alleys throughout the country, possibly beyond. Kids like the ones I saw have allegedly been seen wandering through certain 24-hour big box retailers in the middle of the night and banging on the front doors of numerous witnesses.
Are all of these accounts true? Unlikely. Are there enough to at least reinforce my belief that I encountered something truly strange?
Since my story leaked out to the wider Internet, I’ve gone through several phases. For a long while, I eagerly answered any and all correspondence about the happening. A few years later, I got tired of answering the same questions over and over and over again, and I read, but largely didn’t reply, to inquiries…” (Bethel, 2013).
From that single seed which Bethel let loose in 1998 on a ghost hunter forum, two years after his experience, the legend of the BEK was released onto the world. For a time, reports seemed to flood into every ghost hunter’s inbox. Was this the result of increased sightings and encounters or simply a paranoid overreaction to every day events? Strangely, the evidence isn’t clear either way. There has never been a shred of physical evidence to suggest that BEK’s are physically present in anyway if they exist nor has there ever been anyone to my knowledge that has been caught engaging in a hoax to scare unknown people by putting in contacts and running around asking to be let in.
So if we cannot say the BEK are real due to lack of evidence that supports their existence, what else is there? What else could a black eyed kid be? There are several interesting possibilities.
The first of course would be an over reaction on the part of the witness who had been prepared mentally for such an event. This preparation is called “priming”. Priming is where a pre-suggestion has already been placed into the mind and only an activator stimulus that is appropriately vague in the right circumstances sets off the connection between the knowledge in your brain and your senses making a false connection between the two leading you to a flawed conclusion that isn’t supported by evidence (Kolb & Whishaw, 2008).
This happens quite a bit with so-called EVPs and photos purported to be paranormal. For example, if I was to give you a list of words including the word table, and later asked you to complete a word starting with tab, the probability that you will answer with table is greater than if you had not been primed by your earlier experience or information.
An example relating to the paranormal would be if I handed you a low-class EVP where there is just enough of a difference in the sound to sound like a voice and it was a deeper sound but you couldn’t make it out, I could play it for you and not tell you anything about it and you wouldn’t hear any coherent voice or statement from the recording nine times out of ten. But if I did the same thing and said “there is a male voice there saying GET OUT” and then played the recording for you, nine times out of ten you would suddenly hear “GET OUT!”
If I showed you a photo of wood grain and said what do you see, you would say, “nothing but wood”. But if I did the same thing with a photo and pointed to certain areas and said, a person took this and says “Jesus is right there, his face is. See here is his beard, etc” you would most likely see Jesus. Is Jesus really there?
Of course not.
Priming is tied to pareidolia, which is the unification of sensory data into a familiar subject based on the perception of complex lines, patterns, gradations, sounds or random colors (Voss, Federmeier & Paller, 2012).
Our perceptions of the every day world work the exact same way. In fact, some neuropsychologists feel that stereotypes and the behavior of stereotyping stems from this odd behavior in our brain which in fact does serve an evolutionary advantage which is of course to make quick decisions about situations and things to avoid being eaten or killed. Without the connections from priming and pareidolia, we would not be able to recognize objects, face and actions within our space. We need it to survive. Unfortunately it does have the negative side effect of making stories like the BEK hard to verify and even hard to explain.
Taking a look at an experience the late researcher John Keel had in his early days of investigating Mothman in the hills of West Virginia we begin to see exactly what priming and pariedolia may have to do with black eyed kids, especially when we connect it to what is called a “frame of reference”.
John A. Keel wrote his first article on unidentified flying objects in 1945, but it was not until a visit to the Aswan Dam in Upper Egypt in 1954 that he saw his first genuine flying saucer. He has written for numerous national publications, and his bylined newspaper features, syndicated by the North American Newspaper Alliance, have appeared in more than 150 major newspapers in the United States and abroad. He was before his death one of the most respected paranormal researchers even among orthodox scientists perhaps only second to Ivan T. Sanderson himself.
I will reproduce his experience in his own words below so that nothing is lost in context:
“….Fingers of lightning tore holes in the black skies as an angry cloudburst drenched the surrealistic landscape. It was 3 A.M. on a cold, wet morning in late November 1967. and the little houses scattered along the dirt road winding through the hills of West Virginia were all dark. Some seemed unoccupied and in the final stages of decay. Others were unpainted, neglected, forlorn. The whole setting was like the opening scene of a Grade B horror film from the 1930s.
Along the road there came a stranger in a land where strangers were rare and suspect. He walked up to the door of a crumbling farmhouse and hammered. After a long moment a light blinked on somewhere in the house and a young woman appeared, drawing a cheap mail-order bathrobe tightly about her. She opened the door a crack and her sleep-swollen face winced with fear as she stared at the apparition on her doorstep.
He was over six feet tall and dressed entirely in black. He wore a black suit, black tie, black hat, and black overcoat, with impractical black dress shoes covered with mud. His face, barely visible in the darkness, sported a neatly trimmed mustache and goatee. The flashes of lightning behind him added an eerie effect.
(John Keel, circa 1967).
“May I use your phone?” He asked in a deep baritone, his voice lacking the familiar West Virginia accent. The girl gulped silently and backed away.
“My husband …” She mumbled. “Talk to my husband.”
She closed the door quickly and backed away into the darkness. Minutes passed. Then she returned accompanied by a rugged young man hastily buckling his trousers in place.
He, too, turned pale at the sight of the stranger.
“We ain’t got a phone here,” he grunted through the crack in the door just before he slammed it. The couple retreated murmuring to themselves and the tall stranger faded into the night.
Beards were a very rare sight in West Virginia in 1967. Men in formal suits and ties were even rarer in those back hills of the Ohio valley. And bearded, black-garbed strangers on foot in the rain had never been seen there before.
In the days that followed the young couple told their friends about the apparition.
Obviously, they concluded, he had been a fearful omen of some sort. Perhaps he had been the devil himself!
Three weeks later these two people were dead, among the victims of the worst tragedy ever to strike that section of West Virginia. They were driving across the Silver Bridge which spanned the Ohio River, when it suddenly collapsed.
(Silver Bridge collapse remains. Death toll: forty-six, including children. Nine injured. Date of Collapse: December 15, 1967).
Their friends remembered. They remembered the story of the bearded stranger in the night. It had, indeed, been a sinister omen, one that confirmed their religious beliefs and superstitions. So a new legend was born. Beelzebub had visited West Virginia on the eve of a terrible tragedy.…..
…..I would prefer to believe that I did not look like the devil in my late beard. I certainly had no intention of launching new legends when my car ran off the road in West Virginia that November and I plodded from house to house searching for a telephone so I could call a tow truck. I had just come up from Atlanta, Georgia, where I had delivered a speech to a local UFO club.
West Virginia was almost a second home to me in those days. I had visited the state five times, investigating a long series of very strange events, and had many friends there. One of them, Mrs. Mary Hyre, the star reporter of the Athens Ohio, Messenger was with me that night. We had been out talking to UFO witnesses, and earlier that evening we ourselves had watched, a very strange light in the sky. Since there was a heavy, low cloud layer it could not have been a star. It maneuvered over the hills, its brilliant glow very familiar to both of us for we both had seen many such lights in the Ohio Valley that year.
Mrs. Hyre waited in the car while I trudged through the mud and muck. We had been trying to climb a slippery hill to a spot where we had seen many unusual things in the past. I found that the telephones in the houses closest to our location were not working, apparently knocked out by the storm. So I had to keep walking until I finally found a house with a working phone. The owner refused to open his door so we shouted back and forth. I gave him a phone number to call. He obliged and went back to bed. I never knew what he looked like.
My point, of course is that Beelzebub was not wandering along the back roads of West Virginia that night. It was just a very tired John Keel busy catching a whale of a cold. But from the view of the people who lived on that road, something very unusual had happened. They had never before been roused in the middle of the night by a tall bearded stranger in black. They knew nothing about me or the reasons for my presence so they were forced to speculate. Even speculation was difficult. They could only place me in the frame of reference they knew best—the religious. Bearded men in city dress simply did not turn up on isolated back roads in the middle of the night. In fact, they didn’t even turn up on the main streets of Ohio Valley towns in broad daylight! So a perfectly normal event (normal, that is, to me) was placed in an entirely different context by the witnesses.
The final proof of my “supernatural origin” came three weeks later when two of the people I had awakened were killed in the bridge tragedy. Some future investigator of the paranormal may wander into those hills someday, talk with these people, and write a whole chapter of a learned book on demonology repeating this piece of folklore. Other scholars will pick up and repeat his story in their books and articles. The presence of the devil in West Virginia in November 1967 will become a historical fact, backed by the testimony of several witnesses….” (Keel, 2002).
Frame of reference and context are everything. If you visit an old run down place in the middle of the day and hear stories about it being haunted and you probably won’t be scared at all. Visit the same place in the dead of night or during a thunderstorm, and your perceptions will change drastically.
After Bethel’s experience was reported as I said before the numbers spiked. The encounters almost always had certain factors in common: it was almost always late at night, storming, with normal activities being engaged in when suddenly these BEK’s appear, extreme fear being experienced and then the witness running away just in time, surviving to tell the story….these are all hallmarks of urban legends. Many people have said that Bethel faked his story but since his story is a subjective experience and we have no way to verify it did or did not happen, I will not speculate and only relay it.
Why the sudden spike this year (2013) in black eyed kids? Are they multiplying? Hardly. This year was ripe with black eyed kid movies, stories and appearences in the media.
“….Black-eyed children fever hit the Internet in February 2013, when a two-minute video episode of “Weekly Strange” featuring a look at these strange, putative beings was posted to the entertainment section of the MSN web site located here:
Not surprisingly, the appearance of the black-eyed children video on MSN coincided with the release of Black Eyed Kids, an urban legend-based horror film.” (Mikkelson, 2013).
So in short, priming, pareidolia, frame of reference (fictional movies, books) and context all play important roles in how we perceive events and experiences, even other people, and all of these things can combine together to create one helluva scary experience, even if by the light of day we would dismiss such an idea out of hand for its ridiculousness.
But could black eyed kids REALLY exist as real flesh and blood people? What could possibly cause such a thing to be seen if we discount priming and all the other stuff (which is illogical in an of itself because it’s the most basic explanation)?
Since we’ve looked at the perception of the witness and how psychology impacts it, let’s look at medical causes that combined with the above discussed psychological factors and environmental parameters of the reported experiences, could present a situation to one’s mind as a BEK encounter should a person encounter a roaming band of six to sixteen year old kid asking to be “let in.”
The dilation of the pupil in the human eye is called mydriasis. This term is often used when referring to pupil dilation that is NOT the result of a physiological condition or cause, such as drugs, illness or injury. Normally, as you know, the pupil enlarges or constricts based on the amount of light entering the eye at any given time. Besides light, arousal, either negative or positive (such being about to get into a fight or sexual arousal) can cause the pupil’s to dilate, often noticeably. There are several conditions that can cause a pupil to expand beyond what most people have seen in another human being or display other abnormal behavior.
Some of them are:
1.) Blown pupil: This is an informal term referring to when a set of pupils is dilated beyond normal limits due to possible and likely increased intracranial pressure (brain hemorrhaging for example).
(blown pupil. Seen in low light, could it appear all black?)
2.) Adie’s Tonic Pupil: A condition where one pupil is noticably larger than the other often mismatched in size. In this condition, the one pupil gradually grows smaller and smaller until it appears to be permenantly in that state however, it will expand to light but far far slower than a natural reaction will but will respond normally to what is called the “near reflex”, the instinctive automatic pupilary response to stimuli too close to the face that moves suddenly.
3.) Drugs: phenylephrine (found in sudafed and decongestants), adrenaline, ephinepherin, antimuscarinics (atropine, Atropen, etc), tricyclic antidepressants, amfetamines and ecstasy.
4.) Traumatic iris damage, third cranial nerve palsy, pharmacological dilation (ie dilating drops), iris rubeosis (Paitient UK, 2013).
While none of these presents as a full blown black eyed kid appearance (i.e. totally black eye including no iris, no visible pupil and no sclera…nothing but black), if combined with the right atmospheric parameters and/or primed conditioning, such as being a paranormal enthusiast or a believer in the unexplained, it may cause the brain to make a connection between confusing and unknown sensory data (not many people are familiar with the anatomy and conditions of the eye or pharmacological effects) and information held in long term memory, creating an experience where there really isn’t one.
What about hoaxes?
Teenagers and kids are among the most internet idiotic and the most internet savvy people at the same time. This contradictory existence enables kids to do what they have always done: be exquisite pranksters. As time has went on, information on the internet is easier and easier to obtain, easier to fake and easier to decimate making the problem of priming and pareidolia all the more invasive. A kid with a mischievous streak could easily read a story by a “witness” of a BEK and think “this would be funny!” and order a certain kind of contact lens called a “sclera contact” that covers the entire eye.
These sclera contacts are relatively expensive (if made professionally) and often are custom made (again if made professionally and legally). They have a variety of uses from theater and special effects in movies to medical treatment. Just because of the price, many people have discounted it as a possibility for modern kids to buy them. This would be an extremely illogical idea because there is precedent for kids getting access to special contact lenses, price be damned.
Take into consideration Lady Gaga. She is one my favorite artists in music and as a LGBT rights leader, she has my respect. Her video “Bad Romance” however is where I want to look to. In the video several scenes portray Gaga in a bath tub with abnormally large eyes. This effect of course was computer generated however young girls and women loved the look of those larger than life anime-esque eyes. These girls and women took to ordering specially made contacts called circle lenses that were made in Asia and imported illegally.
It is illegal under United States law to sell any contact lens corrective or cosmetic without a prescription and no major lens maker in the US currently makes circle lenses. They are available from a variety of dicey websites for as little as twenty dollars a pair. Girls and women have used message boards (remember those from Brian Bethel’s day?) and YouTube describing how to get them and put them in. The girls who go along with this fad in Korea where it started are called “ulzzang girls”. Ulzzang means “best face” in rough Korean but can also stand for “pretty.” (Louis, 2010).
Sites that sell contact lenses approved by the Food and Drug Administration are supposed to verify customers’ prescriptions with their eye doctors. By contrast, circle lens sites allow customers to choose the strength of their lenses as freely as their color.
(girl wearing circle lenses).
A makeup artist named Michelle Phan introduced many Americans to circle lenses through a video tutorial on YouTube, where she demonstrates how to get “crazy, googly Lady Gaga eyes.” Ms. Phan’s video is called “Lady Gaga Bad Romance Look,” and it has been viewed more than 9.4 million times.
(Link here: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bHVOxhEpjp0). (Louis, 2010).
Optometrists warn that such lenses when not the proper prescription or cheaply made could damage the eye by not allowing enough oxygen to reach the eye itself, corneal scratches or worse, blindness. Naturally dangerous things have never stopped kids before.
If people are selling cheap circle lenses, why could they not be selling cheap and yes, dangerous sclera lenses as well? It doesn’t make sense to rule one out but have the other be a proven fact. Take for example my results in searching for cheap sclera lenses. I found a website in less than forty seconds that offered them for about 126.00. That may seem huge but remember we are talking about an age group especially the fifteen to sixteen year old ranges that can and do have jobs and can easily afford them. The website was fast, cheap, no questions asked. I will not repeat its URL here because I consider that to be encouraging a dangerous behavior and that I will not do.
The point is it is possible for people, kids even, to buy cheap illegal contacts no questions asked and pull pranks. Which is more likely? A demon or ET that wants to eat your brain and soul with all black eyes who knocks on your door asking to come in or a prank set up by a mischievous kid with access to relatively easy money and too much time on his or her hands?
In closing, I would like to relate an experience of my own. This experience happened to me today in the grocery store. I had gone out this afternoon (it was the 27th when this happened but I started writing this late at night which is why it may not make sense date wise) to get the oil changed in our car. After getting the oil changed, I ran over to FoodCity to pick up stuff for a meatloaf country dinner. My husband and I planned to fix dinner for my mom and step-father as they have yet to be able to spend much time in our house even for the last two years.
I was walking down the meat aisle and suddenly here came a woman who caught my attention immediately. She was walking strangely, sort of hunched over a bit, pushing her cart, looking at the ground mostly, glancing every once in a while around to pick up an item on her list I suppose since I never saw any list (I keep my list on my smart phone because I am too scatterbrained to keep up with a piece of paper). I moved to get out of her way and let her pass because I was looking over the hamburger rolls (prices had went up, joy!) when suddenly she jerks her head up and I see her face for the first time. It looked like any normal face of an older lady except her eyes.
Her eyes were jet black, so black they almost appeared red, especially around the edges of her eyelids.
Now, I have been the chat moderator for Dave Schrader and Tim Dennis’s Darkness Radio paranormal talk show for several years in different formats and one of the favorite creepy topics of the show and in the chat used to be Black Eyed Kid stories. They would freak the chatters out. I dismissed the stories as just urban legends and fakes. But the moment I saw her eyes, every single one of them slammed down on me instantly, a speeding locomotive train of horror hitting me all at once: I was wrong.
For half a second, I actually stopped in my tracks as she grinned madly from ear to ear, pinning me with those dark eyes and she opened her mouth and said in a gentle but creepily happy voice:
“ Oops, gotta go around!”
And then I looked again, my investigators instinct kicking in, ready to document this experience so I could relate it to Dave once I got the chat room re-opened for listeners one Monday during call in night so I could finally admit my stubborn pride was wrong.
I took a second look, trying to see past the priming and pareidolia from all the ghost stories and BEK encounters that had been related that I had heard.
Then I saw her sclera were simply bloodshot and yellowed, probably from smoking I realized. Her natural eye color, like mine, was a very deep brown. My eyes are a naturally super dark brown and unless the light hits them right, they appear quite black.
I relaxed as a realized she was just an old lady shopping and being polite in the best way she knew how and that she was harmless. Needless to say, I picked up the rest of the groceries me and Sam needed and headed home with a new appreciation for how the mind works and how it pieces together everything from memory, obscure knowledge, dismissed ideas and experiences in the here and now into a single brilliant moment of perception that is so striking it can at times blind us to the very truth of what is really in front of us.
Are black eyed kids real? Are they hoaxes? Is Brian Bethel a fabulous story teller?
The answer remains as elusive as it will always be. In my opinion, black eyed kids are nothing more than an urban legend sparked by one story many years ago that has taken on a life of its own, much like the legends surrounding a notorious haunted spot in Kingsport, Tennessee called Sensabaugh Tunnel. However, their legacy is not one of ectoplasmic miasmas, but rather a testament to the power of the human mind to take information, fold it and surprise us in ways we never thought possible, and while we think of ourselves as the most rational intelligent beings on the planet, perhaps, just perhaps, we really are fooling ourselves.
Did you just hear a knock? At this hour? Who could it be? Go look out your window and see.
Bethel, B. (2013, April 13). Brian bethel recounts his possible paranormal encounter with ‘beks’. Retrieved from http://www.reporternews.com/news/2013/apr/13/brian-bethel-recounts-his-paranormal-encounter/ Date: December 28, 2013.
Kolb, B., & Whishaw, I. (2008). Fundamentals of human neuropsychology. (pp. 453-454, 457). New York, NY: Worth Publishers.
Voss, J., Federmeier, K., & Paller, K. (2012). The potato chip really does look like elvis! neural hallmarks of conceptual processing associated with finding novel shapes subjectively meaningful . Oxford Journal: Cerebral Cortex, doi: 10.1093/cercor/bhr315
Keel, J. (2002). The mothman prophecies. (pp.1-4) New York, NY: Tor Books.
Pupillary abnormalities. (n.d.) http://www.patient.co.uk/doctor/pupillary-abnormalities. Retrieved: December 28, 2013.
Louis, C. (2010, July 03). What big eyes you have, dear, but are those contacts risky?. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2010/07/04/fashion/04lenses.html December 28, 2012.
Mikkelson, D., & Mikkelson, B. (2013, April 29). Black-eyed children. Retrieved from http://www.snopes.com/horrors/ghosts/blackeyed.asp