AEARS: Appalachian Energy and Anomaly Research Society: Welcome back!



Its with no small amount of effort and time that I’m proud to say that myself and my team are once again conducting paranormal investigations. My life keeps pushing me in this direction, and I’ve been trying to steer my own course for several years now but it seems like this is where I am meant to be. I started my own team ten years ago as PSI Paranormal, which evolved into Southern States Paranormal Research Society as we joined and worked the TAPS Family and now, after four years of absence, we are back, armed with ten years of experience under our belts with new theories, new gear and a new perspective on analytics, the scientific method and experimentation.  My team has united and we are more than ready to go after anything that bumps in the night and bump back.

AEARS operates on technological principles, objective measurement of environmental changes to corroborate subjective paranormal experiences with the ultimate goal of being able to design technology that will allow us to directly record or interact with the psychic world, assuming it exists.

We do not charge for investigations and still maintain a relationship with the TAPS Family and the TAPS network, though we ourselves are not currently TAPS Family at the present time.

If you have a haunting or psychic experience you would like to share or have investigated, please let us know. We are also looking into reports of cryptids and UFOs. If you have questions or need more information, please see our website and use one of our contact forms so we can be ready to answer your call.

Work on AEARS will only add to the depth of this blog and I can’t wait to get back in the field. I’ve truly missed active investigations! Will you help me spread the word? Thanks to my wonderful readers.


AEARS Website:


— Anthony Justus.

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EVP: Science, theory and explanations.

Electronic Voice Phenomena:

An examination of the history of electronic voice phenomena related to the study of paranormal events, its methods, alternate explanations, analysis and documentation and how to collect and document EVP correctly.

by: Anthony Justus





“…If our personality survives, then it is strictly logical or scientific to assume that it retains memory, intellect, other faculties, and knowledge that we acquire on this Earth. Therefore…if we can evolve an instrument so delicate as to be affected by our personality as it survives in the next life, such an instrument, when made available, ought to record something.”

–Thomas Alva Edison, inventor.


On October 18th, 1931, Thomas Edison, inventor of the modern electric light-bulb lay in his bed, dying. He looked to his physician and said, “It’s very beautiful over there.” As a scientist, Thomas Edison was not a man that tolerated nonsense or pointless ideas. It is said by some that he must have believed in what he experienced on his deathbed,  otherwise, he would not have reported it or commented on it as such. At the moment of his death, the ornate library clock in Edison’s study stopped cold as did several assistant’s clocks, at 3:24 AM. No explanation to this day has ever been made as to why all the clocks stopped as they did, though his sons did try to find out who stopped them, however no one ever admitted to committing the act.

Edison himself theorized in response to an interview question that should our spirit survive physical death, that an instrument that was sensitive enough to such energies should be able to detect it or interact with that part of us that has moved on beyond the body and make a recording. There is no evidence that Edison himself ever attempted to create such a device, despite claims to the contrary. Has that moment now came at last, some eighty-years after Edison’s death, that we, at last, may have a machine that allows us to reach across the barrier between life and death and contact those who have passed on before? Some say that yes, indeed we have. What is the machine? What possible intricate and exotic device could this be?

The audio recorder.

The goal of this paper is to examine several things including the history of EVP, what EVP is believed to be, alternate explanations for EVP, and equipment used to capture EVP as well as analyze it.

History of EVP.

Thirty years before Edison’s now famous quote in 1901, American ethnologist Waldemar Bogoras had made an expedition to Siberia to study the shaman of the Tchouktchi tribe. In a dimly lit room, he witnessed what the shaman claimed was a spirit summoning ritual. The shaman beat a drum rhythmically, increasing in volume with every beat, the pace increasing exponentially as the shaman himself seemed to fall into a trance like state. Bogoras was shocked to hear the room suddenly fill with voices from which he could not pinpoint a source, speaking a garbled mix of English and Russian. “I set up my equipment so I could record without light,” Bogoras wrote, speaking of his phonograph (Macy, 2010). The shaman himself, Bogoras noted, sat twenty feet away and “when the light was extinguished the spirits appeared after some hesitation and following the wishes the of the shaman, spoke into the horn of the phonograph.” When he played the recording back, Bogoras was amazed to find that he could hear the shaman talking as well as the ceaseless drumbeats…and the voices of the spirits talking over the shaman. Coupled with the drumbeats and the shaman talking, the voices sounded like they were right on top of the phonograph input, which ruled out the shaman as he was over twenty feet away and never moved.

It was the first time in history that spirit voices were reportedly captured on a recording device, resulting in the world’s first EVP. But it would not be the last, not by far.

In 1910, a Catholic altar boy in Brazil often saw his superior, a priest, Roberto Landell do Moura, speaking into a small box which then would speak back. Father Moura did not share the details about what was in the box or how it worked as official Church rules frowned on any type of communication with spirits (May, 2010).  In 1925, Brazilian researcher Oscar d’Argonell wrote the book, Voices from Beyond by Telephone, which recorded details of his long telephone dialogues with supposed spirit friends.  In 1936, American photographer Attila Von Szalay began to experiment with a record cutter and had some success in capturing spirit voices on phonograph records, similar to Bogoras in 1901.  He partnered with Raymond Bayless, a writer, and found stronger success in using a wire recorder and both men published the results of their experiments in an article for the American Society for Psychical Research in 1959 but neither ever received further attention nor was their article considered a success.

Perhaps the two most important incidents in the history of electronic voice phenomenon occurred in the early and late 1950s. In the early part of that decade, in Italy, two Catholic priests, Father Ernetti and Father Gemelli were collaborating on music research. Ernetti was an internationally respected scientist, a physicist and philosopher as well as an avid music lover. Gemelli was President of the Papal Academy. On September 15, 1952, while the men were recording a Gregorian chant, a wire on their magnetophone kept snapping. Aggravated and tired of fooling with it, Father Gemelli looked up and asked his father, who was deceased for help. To the shock of both men, the voice of Gemelli’s dead father recorded on the magnetophone answered: “ Of course I will help you. I am always with you.”

Stunned, the priests repeated the experiment and again, got a response, this time the voice of Gemelli’s father seemed to find it funny that they had such a hard time believing it was him, commenting discarnately from the recorder, “ But Zucchini, it is clear don’t you know who it is I?”

Zucchini had been Gemelli’s nickname that his father had often teased him with when he was alive. While deeply touched and grateful to be able to speak to his long departed father, the event troubled the priests who wondered if they had any right to speak with the dead. The two men visited the pope, Pope Pius XII, in Rome and told him of their experiences.

The Pope simply dismissed any wrong doing upon their behalf and said “ Dear Father Gemelli, you really need not worry about this. The existence of this voice is strictly a scientific fact and has nothing whatsoever to do with spiritism. The recorder is totally objective. It receives and records only sound waves from where ever they come. This experiment may perhaps become the cornerstone for a building for scientific studies which will strengthen people’s faith in a hereafter.”

While reassured, Gemelli did not publish his findings or the record of the incident until near the end of his life in 1990.

At the end of that decade in 1959, Swedish film producer Friedrich Juergenson captured voices on audiotape while taping birdsongs. When he played the tape back, he heard a male voice say something about “bird voices in the night”. Upon closer inspection, he also heard his mother’s voice say, in German, ” Friedrich, werden Sie aufgepaßt. Friedel, mein kleines Friedel, können Sie mich hören?” Translated roughly, this means “ Friedrich, you are being watched. Friedel, my little Friedel, can you hear me?”

Now convinced that he had made an important discovery, over the course of the next four years, Juergenson continued to record hundreds of claimed paranormal voices and playing the tapes are international press conferences and in 1964, published a book in Swedish, Voices from the Universe and later, another work, titled Radio Contact with the Dead.

The development of what was perceived to be research on EVP continued through the years, and attracted now household names to it, at least in the paranormal community, such as Konstantin Raudive, Latvian psychologist skeptic turned believer who began to study EVP after visiting and learning the methods of Juergenson, with Raudive himself recording many hours (over 72,000 voices) of communication with the dead. In 1971, Raudive was tested independently by Pye Records who initiated a controlled experiment in which Raudive was not allowed to touch or interact with any of the equipment used to record for 18 minutes. The room in which Raudive was placed was shielded against stray radio or television broadcasts. During the recording session, only Raudive himself was heard. Upon playback however, over 200 separate voices were discovered.

It was in late 1973 that most EVP researchers consider a major breakthrough in communicating with the dead was achieved. Paranormal researchers George and Jeanette Meek met a supposedly very psychic man named William O’Neil, who reportedly, could see and hear spirits. O’Neil was also a gifted man with electronics and according to most sources, combined his knowledge of electronics and his gifts of mediumship to produce a new device and method of communication called the SpiriCom. SpiriCom was set of tone generators and frequency generators that emitted 13 tones spanning the range of the adult male voice. Apparently and according to O’Neil, he received help in his design for this device by working together with deceased physicist Dr. George Jeffries Mueller, who’s ghost is said to have materialized to O’Neil one night in his living room. BY 1980, the SpiriCom device had advanced to the point that the disembodied voices were very clear, though strangely buzz filled.

Some would accuse O’Neil of faking the voices with an electric larynx, though this was never proven based upon the buzz-filled sound of the recordings, the fact that neither Mueller’s nor O’Neil’s voices ever overlapped and the fact that despite detailed plans, diagrams and other SpiriCom’s being built, no one was ever able to replicate the type of results O’Neil did. (May, 2010).

In 1982, Sarah Estep founded the American Association of Electronic Voice Phenomenon, AAEVP, which was an organization devoted to the study and research of EVP recordings and even developed a classification system for the EVP recordings based upon their clarity, Class A (recordings that needed no cleaning, no filtering and were absolutely clear to the listener, a very rare type), Class B (which are loud and garbled and are agreed upon to be a voice but what the voice is saying is unknown) and Class C (vocalizations or sounds that are not voices yet should not be present on the recording). Some go further, by adding a Class D, which is any audio event not covered by the previous three categories. (Macy, 2010).

In more recent times other devices, spiritual successors the SpiriCom have been developed to reportedly allow real time communication with the dead, such as Frank’s Box in 2002,  of which Frank Sumption, the box’s creator, claims the design came from the other side, much like the SpiriCom. Frank’s Box supposedly worked as a combination white noise generator and an AM radio receiver modified to sweep back and forth through the AM band, selecting split second snippets of sound. This box was heavily criticized, perhaps rightfully so, due to the extremely subjective nature of the sounds it produced and since it relied upon radio noise, any response the user may get is either coincidence or a result of audio pareidolia.

The Ovilus and the Paranormal Puck were devices that were also made within the last ten years designed reportedly to contact the dead by utilizing sensor input in the form of electromagnetic readings, temperature shifts and changes in the atmospheric conditions of an area to produce words either from pre-selected dictionaries or voice synthesizers. The reliability and viability of these devices is hotly debated and open to interpretation as none has been proven to work.

So, with all this history, what is EVP?

EVP is an acronym that stands for electronic voice phenomenon, and refers specifically to a form of supposed communication from the dead, in which a speaker asks questions to empty air and records the session and upon playback, voices which were not heard during the initial recording are often heard respond to the speaker in the most common set up. This set up, while common, is by far not the only method of conducting EVP research and EVP is one of many variations of what has been termed “instrumental trans-communication” or ITC which refers to the use of technology by the dead to reach out to the living or vice versa.

EVP is commonly believed by most paranormal investigators to be the voices of the dead or in rare situations with other forms of ITC, the actual manifestation of the visual and audio aspects of a personality that has been deceased. One of the most perplexing aspects of EVP is why it is so often unheard during the recording. Some research teams and ideas as to why we cannot hear EVP at the time it is recorded is that it may be a type of psychokinetic influence on the circuits in the digital audio recorder or perhaps a psychokinetic  (PK) imprint on magnetically sensitive tapes (standard cassettes). While EVP may in fact be a PK event, the theory remains unproven as of this writing. If it is in fact a PK event, it remains to be seen if the recorder (person who is actually recording the session) is the one who is the agent for the PK influence or if it a discarnate intelligence which is using PK to manifest itself on the medium, which is the device itself.  PK testing conducted at Duke University suggests that PK does in fact have a stronger affect on random number generators or computers for all intents and purposes. A digital audio recorder is nothing more than a very simple computer however this does not adequately explain why EVPs are caught on magnetic tape.

Josh Warren’s investigation team in North Carolina, LEMUR, have done experiments that show that the reason why an audio recorder may pick a sound up but your ears may not is that your ears are designed to pick up sound waves not electromagnetic signals. Sound waves are air vibrations that cause the ear drum to vibrate whereas something like say a radio signal is an electromagnetic wave. Our hearing system is not designed to “translate” electromagnetic signals into proper sound but a microphone is.

Most decent audio recorders are actually shielded against radio frequency feedback to prevent the accidental pick up of radio frequencies but what LEMUR found out was that if you take an audio recorder and wire a radio or sound output device to broadcast its sound not with sound waves (air vibrations) but rather as a projected energy wave (electromagnetic wave) that the recorder’s microphone will still pick up the sound and re-interpret it as sound even though we can’t hear the broadcast at all.  This suggests the possibility that the reason we cannot hear EVPs in real time is that whatever is causing them, ghost or otherwise, may in fact be using an electromagnetic wave to transmit sound as opposed to air vibrations. Whether or not this electromagnetic wave is influenced by PK remains to be seen, however, given the success rates of experiments such as Helmut Schmidt, who was one of the major pioneers in using random number and random event generators, in particular ones that used strontium-90 as the basis for random generation, and given the fact that PK does seem to be able to manipulate electronics, the idea that a PK influence on a magnetic field existing is not far fetched (Parapsychology Handbook, 1977).  The experiment by Warren that support the theory that EVP is a magnetic field thus why we cannot hear them is described in its entirety below from Josh Warren himself:

Understanding EVP
A Practical Demonstration

How is EVP activity recorded?

Electronic Voice Phenomena, or EVP, is a general term for ghostly sounds that are captured using audio recording devices. Traditionally, EVP refers to spectral voices, as the original term implies. However, that term has come to be used in connection with paranormal audio that does not necessarily include a perceived voice, or voices. EVP are most often sound effects, like footsteps in an empty room, or strange knocks and bangs. But, of course, voices are what most paranormal researchers strive to capture most. These voices can be interactive, answering questions presented by investigators or communicating information about the research environment.


EVP is most notable because it is not heard by the naked human ears. The recording is made in a place that appears to be quiet. However, when the recording is played back, the ghostly audio is heard. Sometimes an audio recording device is left to record by itself in an apparently quiet environment. Other times, an investigator will ask questions in a place that seems to be soundless, while recording the session and pausing after each question in anticipation of an answer. Then, when the recording is played back, answers will indeed follow the questions.

Humans can hear from around 20-20,000 hertz. If the recording device is sensitive to lower or higher frequencies, it could explain why sounds are captured that humans cannot perceive. However, the devices that capture EVP are usually sensitive to the same range as human hearing. This is perplexing to most people, since it doesn’t seem to make sense that the recorder would document a sound that was not audible at the time. However, it is relatively easy to explain why this may occur.

For years, investigators speculated that spirits might directly imprint electromagnetically-sensitive audio tape. Indeed, this may sometimes be the case. However, the advent of the digital recorder changed that perception some, considering digital recorders use no tape, but are still capable of capturing EVP. Instead, it seems most likely that ghosts produce electromagnetic oscillations that are not perceived by human ears, but can be easily interpreted by a microphone. In fact, the type of microphone used may be the greatest factor in determining the quality and range of EVP a recorder can capture. This can be easily demonstrated with a relatively simple setup.

If you take a radio tuned to a station, and plug a large coil of wire into the headphone jack (where sound comes out), you will hear nothing. This is because the coil of wire does not act like a speaker. It only takes the electrical signal from the radio and broadcasts it from the coil. When you turn the volume on the radio all the way up, you still will not hear anything, but the electrical signal traveling through the coil is strong. Next, take an audio recorder, with an external microphone, hold it near the coil, and record. When you play the recording back, you will find the radio station has been recorded loud and clear. Sound was transferred electromagnetically from the coil to the microphone, and the microphone interpreted the electrical signal as sound to imprint on the recording medium. At no point were the sound waves resonating air (like a speaker), and the resonance of air is essential for such sounds to be perceived by ears.


Considering ghostly activity is so prominently connected to electromagnetism, it seems that spirits may communicate by producing electrical signals that are easily perceived by the microphone, but not the investigators present. Of course, if the investigators are monitoring the room live via microphones, then real-time audio communication may be possible.


If you conduct the radio experiment, you can test out different types of microphones, and microphone positions, to determine the best techniques for recording EVP. Just remember to turn up the radio volume all the way and use an external microphone for best results. At many electronics stores, you can find a headset jack that is split into two wires. Simply hook each end of your coil to each of these wires, and plug the jack in securely. The larger your coil, the stronger your broadcast will be.”  (Warren, 2010).


What about possible alternate explanations for EVP?

            There are a large number of alternate explanations for EVP and these must always be considered when conducting EVP research and eliminated as possibilities. Some of these include radio interference (remember LEMUR’s experiment that was able to produce EVP like effects with an electromagnetically transmitted sound) , electric interference (such as electric current that is not grounded properly), psychological effects such as audio pareidolia, meteor showers  affecting broadcast waves and of course, simple fraud or even apophenia.

Pareidolia and apophenia are the two most often cited caused for most EVP recordings as most EVP recordings out there on the Internet and being publically viewed are Class B or below, thus greatly reducing their effectiveness as evidence for proof of anything and a general lack of knowledge on behalf of the teams who present such weak recordings. Pareidolia is the human mind’s tendency to find familiarity in visual or audible “noise”, similar to seeing familiar shapes in clouds. In the case of EVP, some scientists suggest that the voices are nothing but artifacts created by the subjective processes of the mind trying to make sense of the random noise (Psychology, 2009). Apophenia is the psychological logical fallacy that is related to but distinct from pareidolia, in which people spontaneously find perceived connections or meanings in things which are random, unconnected or meaningless also called illusory correlations which are a fault in some scientific experiments as well (Psychology, 2009).

Interference is seen in some EVP examples especially those that have been recorded on devices with RLC circuitry. In this cases, it is suggested by scientists that these EVPs are actually examples of radio signals of voices or other sounds from broadcast sources, including interference from CB radios, baby monitors or cross modulation (Tipler, 2004). SSPRS itself has discovered several of our own recordings that have these types of interference effects, though none have been able to produce a voice.

Sometimes the “cleaning up” of a recording can actually create false EVPs by raising the noise floor or filtering it by cutting out certain frequencies, isolation of those frequencies or other enhancements which can cause the altered recording to differ significantly from the original source, more often than not creating an EVP event as opposed to documenting one.

Meteor showers are another possible explanation especially where frequencies above 30MHz are concerned. These types of transmissions are not reflected by the ionosphere and there is a possibility of reflection back down by passing comets or meteors, which leave a trail of ionized particles and electrons as they pass through the upper atmosphere in a process called ablation, causing these broadcasts which normally would flow out into space to be bounced back. These reflected waves are from transmitters which are below the horizon of the received meteor reflection, which means a scattered wave may carry quite a distance, though the chances of a meteor shower interfering can easily be ruled out by checking astronomical charts for known meteor showers or space events during the investigation or recording session. Solar storms may also influence recordings. (Harvey, 1974).

Recording and Analyzing EVP:

            Below is the method that SSPRS uses to collect and study EVP events. This is, in most cases, the standard procedure for teams to collect EVP with few exceptions.

Required Equipment:

  • Digital Audio Recorder with a USB Output (needed to download the audio files to a computer) OR an analog cassette recorder with an external Omni-directional microphone (helps reduce or eliminate the sounds of the gears turning. You will also need high quality fresh clean non-used tapes if you use analog. Microcassette or standard does not matter).


TIP: You should set the microphone on the digital recorder to CONFERENCE. This allows a more effective sampling range around the device.


TIP: If you will be using an analog recorder, you will also need a 3.5 millimeter (standard jack) audio patch cable to transfer your standard cassette/micro-cassette recordings to the PC. Don’t forget the right batteries. Always use fresh.


  • Pen and Paper.
  • Noise-Cancelling Headphones
  • Computer with USB ports.
  • Audio software (Audacity, Cool Edit Pro 2.0, WavePad, Goldwave, etc).

The method for EVP recording presented here is the method by which SSPRS conducts its own EVP sessions and is by no means suggested to be the only one but it is one by which we have been able to obtain results. During an investigation we will pick out our room and clear it of any possible external noise producing items (things that could create artificial artifacts).

After we clear the room of these items and unplug any remaining devices that are not needed, we make a log of the date and time, location and those who are present as well as an accounting of the whereabouts of anyone else present on the location. Once this has been confirmed we use a radio frequency meter to ensure that there is no radio frequency pollution in the area as well as take standard electromagnetic and temperature readings. These are documented as well as photographing the location. After documentation has been done on the measurement and data logs, the investigators present, no more than three sit down on the floor as to minimize noise while the recorder itself is set aside from the group, on a stable flat surface where no investigator can touch it. Ideally, though not always, a video camera is recording the session.




`At this point, the recorder is activated and time stamped vocally with the following script:

“ Date is _____________. Time is ______________. RF field readings are __________. EMF field readings are____________. Temperature readings are____________. Investigators present are_______________. (at this point each investigator should say their first and last name in a normal speaking voice which can help separate possible names recorded later and provide a control for comparison). Location is________________. Standard EVP session now recording.”

A slight pause of approximately one minute is allowed between the time stamp event and the actual session itself which will be run for an average of fifteen to thirty minutes at a time in each location on the site by a team of investigators. EVP sessions are never ran in tandem and only one session is allowed to be in progress at any given time.

During the session, questions are asked that are simple in nature, often easily answered with a yes or no or a number with a pause of 30 seconds to 1 minute between each question asked during which there is absolutely silence on behalf of the investigators. EVP questions are never forceful and must be polite and without ridicule nor with insults (provocation).

At the end of the session, the time keeper (who also keeps the logs) will once again take measurements at 3 minutes till the end of the session for RF, EMF and temperature, logging these on the logbook and audio without breaking the session. At one minute till the end of the session, a one minute silence is imposed to allow for the possibility of any stray sounds to be recorded. At the end of that final minute, the recording is again time stamped EXACTLY as when it opened with the same verbiage and names. After the time stamp, the recorder is shut off as is the video camera.

The set up is then repeated throughout the location until the location has been fully examined. At no point  is white noise allowed to be used or brown or pink or any other type of noise generator. Ovilus also may not be used except for experimental purposes and must be documented when used. If any sounds or events occur during a session, such as refrigerator turning on, coughing, sneezing, etc or heating and cooling system cycling, they are logged and noted with times. Whispering is forbidden as well.

At the end of the investigation, all audio samples are downloaded into files into the computer and appropriately labeled by location and date. You can transfer the analog files by plugging one end of the patch cable into the output (headphone) jack of the analog recorder and the opposite end into your PC’s microphone jack and then use Windows Sound Recorder to capture the playing file, essentially re-recording the original onto the PC.

The files are then split into fifteen minute clips (makes for easier listening than hours at a time) and listened to in our audio program, Cool Edit Pro 2.0 (Adobe Audition) using noise-cancelling headphones, and a pad and pen to track any events that are found during the listening to go back and revisit for further analysis. Once the initial analysis is completed, the sections that are marked for further review are clipped out and saved as an original file without modification. A second copy is then made and that second copy is the one upon which further cleaning may be done if necessary however, SSPRS does not use cleaning or filtering unless absolutely necessary and any thing that is done to any specific sound file must be documented in full, step by step in the analysis log.

When labeling file names of clips believed to contain EVP events, the file name is NOT allowed to contain what we think an event may say, but rather is a random set of numbers. The listener is not told what we think the sound is and must tell us their impressions first as to minimize audio paredolia.

When listening for human voice ranges and analyzing clips, a carefully conducted frequency analysis of what is believed to be a voice clip can often times help rule out conventional explanations and find alternate ones before leaping to the paranormal (SSPRS, 2010).

                                    More on EVP: Frequency Ranges and Sonic Effects:

(from S.P.I Society for Paranormal Investigation, 2010.)



“ Measuring terms:
1,000,000 cycles per second = Megahertz (MHz)
1,000 cycles per second = Kilohertz (KHz)
1 cycle per second = Hertz (Hz)

Some ghost investigators say that a recorded voice in the ELF range is quantifiably EVP because the human voice cannot go below 250 or 300 Hz.

While it is a true general statement that the frequency of the human voice is about 300 to 3000 Hz, this statement is generalized, over-simplified, and not entirely accurate. In fact, the human voice ranges from 20 Hz to about 14,000 Hz.

Here are some more specific facts regarding frequency range of the human voice:
Most energy concentrated below 1000 Hz.
Vowels have most of their energy below 1000 Hz.
Consonants have most of their energy above 1000 Hz.
Harmonics in voice can go above 3500 Hz.

The range of frequencies that young, healthy adults can hear is between about 20 Hz to about 14,000 Hz (some up to 20,000 Hz).
We perceive speech mainly in the frequency range of 500 Hz to 3000 Hz.
The frequencies which have the most significance for speech lie between about 100 Hz and 4,000 Hz.
Human voice ranges from 20 Hz to about 14,000 Hz (typically about 300 to 4000 Hz).
The fundamental frequency (F0) for an adult male voice is around 120 Hz (80-200 Hz).
A speaker with a bass voice will produce sounds with a F0 of between 75 and 150 Hz.
The typical FQ range for an adult female voice is around 220 Hz (140-500 Hz).
A speaker with a soprano voice will produce sounds with a F0 of 400+ Hz.

These frequency numbers are in Hertz (cycles per second):
1                 Approx. beginning of brain waves
6.66           Theta brain waves
7.85           Alpha brain waves
15.7           Beta brain waves
30-30.56   Government VLF stations
32-33        Government VLF stations
34-42        Government VLF stations
50              Approx. Upper limit of brain wave frequencies
60              Produces an audible sound
Here are some other typical frequency ranges:

Thunder – as low as 20 Hz
Piano – 25 Hz to 4,100 Hz
Bass drums – as low as 30 Hz
Bass guitar – 30 Hz to 200 Hz
Bass Tuba – 44-349 Hz
Cello – 66-987 Hz
Guitar – 83-880 Hz
Trombone – 83-493 Hz
French Horn – 110-880 Hz
Trumpet – 165-987 Hz
Clarinet – 165-1567 Hz
Violin – 196-3,136 Hz
Flute – 262-3,349 Hz
Cymbals – up to 15,000 Hz
Squeal of Bats – about 20,000 Hz


Hearing Frequency Ranges are also interesting to note:
Dog Hearing Frequency Range – about 50-45,000 Hz
Cat Hearing Frequency Range – about 45-85,000 Hz
Bat Hearing Frequency Range – about 2,000-120,000 Hz
Porpoise Hearing Frequency Range – about 75-150,000 Hz



Sounds which the human ear can hear range from 0 dB (so faint that only the best hearing person can hear them) up to 180 dB (as loud as a rocket taking off).
Typically, we speak between 45-60 dB loud.
Here are a few more decibel scales:

Leaves rustling – about 10 dB
Stream Flowing – about 15 dB
Whisper – about 20-50 dB
Ticking Watch – 20-30 dB
Bass Drum – 35-115 dB
Organ (orchestral) – 35-110 dB
Quiet Street – 40 dB
Cymbal – 40-110 dB
Violin – 42-95 dB
Quiet Conversation – 45-60 dB
Trumpet – 55-95 dB
Busy Office – 60 dB
Home hi-fi system – about 60-90 dB
Piano – 60-100 dB
Loud Conversation – 70 dB
Normal City Traffic – 70 dB
High-speed electric train – 70-100 dB
Vacuum Cleaner – 75 dB
Hair Dryer – 80 dB
Cafeteria – 80 dB
Slamming Door – 80 dB
Motorcycle – 90 dB
Lawn Mower – 90 dB
Garbage Truck – 100 dB
Screaming Baby – 115 dB
Thunder – 120 dB
Construction Site – 120 dB
Race Car – 120-130 dB
Rock Band – 120-130 dB
Pain Threshold – 130 dB
Jet Taking Off – 140 dB
Rifle Shot – 160 dB
Rocket launch – 200 dB



A simple explanation of a waveform is that it is a graphic representation of a sound wave, which is the result of compressed air pressure propagating away from its source of compression.

A sound wave can be displayed as amplitude against time.

The loudness or amplitude of a waveform is the changing pressure from the peak of the waveform to the trough (the height of the waveform). Amplitude is measured in dB (decibel) on the vertical axis.

The distance between two successive peaks in a waveform is called the period. This measurement of time is shown on the horizontal axis.

A cycle is the amount of time it takes the waveform to go from one amplitude all the way through its amplitude changes, until it reaches the same amplitude again. (The times a sound wave crosses zero vertically.) This range consists of 360 degrees.

The frequency of the waveform is how many cycles it goes through each second, where one Hz (hertz) is one cycle per second.

Pitch refers to the basic frequency at which a sound vibrates, also known as its fundamental frequency, or F0 (“eff-zero”). This also refers to how high or low the sound is perceived. Pitch is often used synonymously with frequency; the higher the pitch, the higher the frequency.

Fundamental frequency (F0) is the lowest frequency of the sine waves composing a complex sine wave. The two higher frequency components are the second and third harmonics, the fundamental frequency is also called first harmonic.” (SPI, 2010).

By using the above frequency tables, a paranormal investigator or parapsychologist could run frequency analysis on any captured EVP and compare them to the  table to eliminate possible rational causes.

In conclusion, this paper has briefly touched upon the history, methods, theories and basic equipment used to research electronic-voice phenomena. This is by no means a complete study of the anomaly that is known as EVP but merely meant to be an introduction to the study of the events themselves and also give basic instruction on how to obtain clean samples of EVP events in the hopes that more researchers will begin to study EVP. The very existence of EVP, if it is indeed a true phenomena, suggests that discarnate survival of the personality is indeed possible  or at the very least that some part of us is left behind.

Whether or not EVP constitutes survival is up to debate.  Alan Gauld, a contributing author to the Parapsychology Handbook, establishes that to clear up the matter of post-death survival, we must establish three basic rules. The first rule states that only those cases that will be counted as evidence for survival are those in which there is a clear and present recrudescence of the personality of a once living human being in its totality whom has suffered bodily death.  To further clarify personality in precise terms: characteristics, attitudes, mannerisms and emotions, memory-knowledge and intellect. Cases in which  only voices, non-interacting apparitional experiences, EVP and ITC alone do not make proof per se for survival as these events may possibly exist outside of the survival of the human being after death (Parapsychology Handbook, 1977).  If we follow this definition of survival, then EVP alone does not prove survival of the entire personality beyond death, but in fact suggests, that EVP may be nothing more than fragments of a person’s personality and psychic memory lost in space and time that we are able to detect on rare occasions under the right conditions which are as of now, unknown.

Only time will tell whether or not the dead do in fact speak and whether or not we should or even can listen to them.





Macy, M. The phenomenal history and future of ITC research. (n.d). Retrieved January 2nd, 2010 from:

Schacter, D., Gilbert, D., and Wegner, D. Psychology. (2009). Worth. New York: NY.

EVP Frequency Ranges, Society for Paranormal Investigation. (n.d.) Retrieved January 2nd, 2010 from:

Warren, J. Understanding EVP, a Practical Demonstration. LEMUR (n.d). Retrieved January 2nd, 2010 from:

Tipler, P. Physics for Scientists and Engineers: Electricity, Magnetism, Light, and Elementary Modern Physics (5th ed.) (2004). W. H. Freeman: NY.

P Harvey & Bohlman, K. Stereo radio F.M. Handbook, Chapter 7. (1974) N. Price.

EVP Recording Protocol. Southern States Paranormal Research Society, SSPRS. (2006). Retrieved January 2nd, 2010 from: SSPRS Processes Manual.

Wolman, B., Dale, L., Schmeidler, G. & Ullman, M. (Eds.). (1977).                                                                         Handbook of Parapsychology.  New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Company.













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Electromagnetic Survival Theory: The Scientific possibility of ghosts.



By: Anthony Justus.

Please note that any views in this article are theoretical, not proven, and as such, should be taken and studied further. This is simply a hypothesis.

“Death is defined as the cessation of all vital functions of the body including the heartbeat, brain activity (including the brain stem), and breathing,” so says the Medical Encyclopedia.

It is a part of life, and always has been. Not that the simple fact of this eternal cycle makes it any easier for us, as mortals, to accept. It is the final journey in life, as we know it. Eventually, death will happen to all of us, claiming us, one by one. What is death? Is death a mystical curse from supreme beings, an alien virus?

Not hardly.

Death is simply the final stage of being alive. Few realize that in breathing oxygen, and exhaling carbon dioxide, a chemical reaction takes place at the cellular level, oxidation. We age because of this reaction and simply, we rust. The very act which sustains us, breathing, is the very one that will in the end, kill us. It seems that nothing is free of irony.

For most of us, death is a natural, peaceful process that occurs slowly over time, usually ending in a sad, yet gentle transition to whatever phase of existence seems to be beyond what we can see with our eyes for our consciousness. For others, however, this transition can be anything but peaceful, and at times, it seems to be the stuff of nightmares or our worst fears made manifest.

For the murdered, the angry, the suicidal, the tragic accidents and each time that an unnatural death or unwanted death occurs, for these poor people, it disrupts that natural flow.

These types of deaths rip their consciousness from their bodies, tearing lives apart, leaving deep emotional memories in the environment or even, rarely, seemingly the person themselves, trapped in a limbo, always seeking to escape their one last horrible moment only to be thwarted and left in a darkness that will never end.

Scientifically speaking, there should be no chance of an afterlife. We are born, we grow and age, learning from mistakes and hopefully making something of ourselves, and then we die and wink out like a candle flame when the wind blows hard; this is the majority of belief in what happens at death by orthodox science, which rejects and denounces any possibility of a spirit or soul. What if a soul is simply the free floating self contained electromagnetic consciousness of a once living human being?  How does the immaterial control the material? That is actually the key to understanding the concepts we are about to get into.


Mind over matter:

Consciousness controlling matter.

To understand mind over matter, we must become clear on one point. The brain, is completely different and separate from the mind, which is the personality of a human being, their collected memories, likes, dislikes and natures.

The brain is thing of flesh and blood. It feels no pain, and is still not understood by humans, despite our years of research. It is a thing of electrical impulses that fire faster than the speed of sound, and is composed of tiny pathways, each a key to the unknown side of our natures, the Mind.

The mind is you, your personality, spirit, what have you call it, is separate from this flesh, because of a concept we still cannot comprehend: consciousness. While certain portions of the flesh can be manipulated for various effects on certain parts of consciousness, the two are ultimately two separate things working in concert.

We are entirely self-aware and the actions we do every day, laughing, smiling, crying, emotional torment, and fear, and yes, even love, are controlled by something other than just flesh alone.

Besides being conscious, you are also unique.

Let us test a theory now to test mind over matter.

Hold your hand up.


Open your fingers and look at them. They are physical. They are matter, made of atoms and charges, flesh and blood. They are not independently alive and do not have a mind of their own. They are not behaving instinctively. Now, close your fingers and make a fist.



Open it.



Close it.


Now think about what you just did. Surely, it was your brain who told your fingers to move via thousands of electrical impulses firing from nerve synapses faster than the speed of sound.



Now, answer this.


Who told your brain to give the order to fire? What organ did that? What gave your brain permission or the order to fire the impulses, which in turn traveled down the nerves and into the muscles and tendons, causing them to contract and release?


The better question is who. Not what.

The answer is simple.

YOU did.


Nevertheless, YOU should not exist scientifically because you are a non-physical entity residing in a vessel of flesh and blood, rather like a robot to put in somewhat less poetic terms. You are the signal to the antennae who in turn broadcasts the signal to the listeners.

This fact makes mainstream science very uncomfortable. Moreover, they will most likely stammer a quickly built explanation, composed mostly of jargon, because their real answer is: We do not know.

So, with this knowledge, we must now ask ourselves, what is a ghost and how are they made? Is a ghost simply the free roaming consciousness of a human being? I think so.
This next bit is a bit tricky, but with some help from other researchers, I think I can explain it fairly well, so please bear with me. The following paper by Ron Millone of The Atlantic Paranormal Society (TAPS) suggests the following:

“We must first take a look at the ghost in the human machine, the conscious of the mind. Professor McFadden from the School of Biomedical and Life Sciences at the University of Surrey in the UK believes our conscious mind could be an electromagnetic field. His theory may solve many previously intractable problems of consciousness and could have profound implications for our concepts of mind, spirituality and even life and death.


There are wide differences in the concepts of consciousness, which are prevalent among biologists, psychologists, and sociologists. The threefold meaning of consciousness comes from the Latin word ‘con-scio’: a) to cut, b) to make a distinction and c) to know.

There are three different ways to know the difference — ‘con-scientia’:

1) Through genetic bio-reactive knowledge,
2) Through personal self-reflexive knowledge, and,
3) Through social, consensually validated knowledge.

Most people consider “mind” to be all the conscious things that we are aware of.

However, this is not quite accurate. The majority of mental activity occurs without awareness. Actions such as peddling a bicycle or walking can become as automatic as breathing. The biggest puzzle in neuroscience is how the brain activity that we are aware of (consciousness) differs from the brain activity of all of those unconscious actions.

The human brain is a symphony of electromagnetic signals, but science has had trouble finding the conductor of the symphony. One of the problems that neurologists have with consciousness is called the binding problem. The best way to explain the binding problem is to use the analogy of a tree.

A tree seems to contain thousands of leaves, all of which are contained on several branches. Neurobiology tells us that the information contained in the mind (all the leaves) is dissected and scattered among millions of widely separated neurons. The binding problem is encountered when science tries to explain where in the brain all those leaves are stuck together to form the conscious impression of a whole tree.

How does our brain bind information to generate consciousness? The data does not seem to add up and our symphony conductor is once again missing.

Through his research, Professor McFadden realized that every time a nerve fires, the electrical activity sends a signal to the brain’s electromagnetic field. However, unlike solitary nerve signals, information that reaches the brain’s electromagnetic field is automatically bound together with all the other signals in the brain.

The brain’s electromagnetic field does the binding that is characteristic of consciousness. Conscious information processing is associated with the EM component of ultra low frequency (ULF) brainwaves in either:

  1. a) Dialectically “denser” parts of the brain in the normal awake state
    of consciousness; or
    b) a gaseous ionic structure in the vicinity of the mind

So, what does this mean in relation to this paper? Simple. That ghosts are scientifically possible [electromagnetically speaking].

As Ron continues to explain, we shall see why.

“….EEG (Electroencephalography) technology is used to measure brain’s electrical vibrations from the surface of the scalp. The resulting EEG pattern will contain frequency elements mainly below 30Hz. The frequencies are categorized into four states as follows:


State Frequency Range Amplitude State of Mind
Delta 0.5Hz – 4Hz high (up to 200uV) Deep sleep
Theta 4Hz – 8Hz low (5uV – 20uV) Drowsiness (also first stage of sleep)
Alpha 8Hz – 14Hz high (up to 200uV) Relaxed but alert
Beta 14Hz – 30Hz low (less than 10uV) Highly alert and focused


“….The dominant frequency in the EEG pattern determines what is called the current state of the brain. If the amplitude of the alpha range frequencies is highest, the brain is said to be in the alpha stage. Note that other frequencies still occur; it is not meaningful to give any exact frequency your brain is “operating on.”

So what happens at death? Using the first law of thermodynamics there are several possibilities: First, all that energy could transform into heat and bleed out of the skull. That would also mean no afterlife, much less any possibility for ghosts.

Fortunately, there are other possibilities.

The EM field could also change frequency or polarity. Interestingly enough there is some data out there that suggests that the mind goes into theta waves just before death, which gives us a possibility of ghosts [interactive human consciousness existing as a free roaming self contained electromagnetic field]….”


So, at the time of natural death, a person’s brainwaves change frequency into a state resembling semi-consciousness, or the closest thing to it, a near dream-like state, stuck between waking and sleeping, which all of us have experienced at some point, that terrifying feeling, frozen in a limbic state where we are conscious of what goes on around us but unable to wake, trapped under the heavy veil of sleep.

Our hypothesis is going in the second direction of the Electromagnetic Survival Theory, which states at the time of death, the electromagnetic frequencies of the brain switch over, allowing a peaceful release of the consciousness of the person.

So why the ghosts that seem to linger?

This gentle electromagnetic switch-gate is the door that allows us, the unique essence to leave the now useless shell of the body behind and continue onto the next part of existence wherever that may be.

But what happens when something interferes? What happens if this electrical process is disrupted?


These study data referred to above as shifting polarity have been collected on patients that die naturally, peacefully, usually in a hospital bed, surrounded by loved ones or others who care, trying to make their passing as easy as possible.

There have been no studies of people who die violently. Naturally, this would be both unethical, and highly unlikely to be possible. However, in an afterthought, what about these murders, suicides, accidental deaths, and those who simply do not want to leave?
I have come to believe that the sheer will or the event that makes such a tragic death occur somehow circumvents or shorts out the electromagnetic shift in frequencies. When this short circuit occurs, it somehow traps the consciousness of the person in limbo between this living reality and perhaps another, filled with other types of electromagnetic forms of life, perhaps even some types of beings or predators.


I also believe that if people want to hold on to their lives strong enough, that their sheer will and emotional attachment can disrupt the electromagnetic frequency shift and trap them on this plane of existence.


** * I would like to give tremendous thank you to Ron Milone and the contributing websites for their assistance in the preparation of this paper. I do not claim credit for their work.

—– Anthony Justus.


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Shadow People: What are they?

Shadow People: What Are They?



Different authors and people in the paranormal have their theories as to what a shadow person is, and these ideas come from all fields of study and belief, ranging from metaphysics, religious ideals, parapsychology, cryptozoology, even the occult and demonology.


Others have ideas that shadow people are thought forms, ghosts themselves or sometimes even demonic forces. A thought form, by the way, as most people are familiar with the basic ideas of what a ghost and demon may be, is a manifestation of mental energy from a thinker or person into a semi corporeal (physical) form. They called tulpas alternatively and the idea for them comes from Tibetan and Hindu mysticism.

Further speaking of the tulpas, there is a book called Thought Forms by Annie Besant and C.W. Leadbeater, which is essentially study on the power of the nature of thoughts. They state as their premise that thoughts have two effects on the physical world, a “radiating vibration” and a “floating form” and going further, they break up their classification of thought forms into several different categories:

  • Thought forms that take the image of the thinker
  • Thought forms that take the image of a material object
  • Thought forms which take the form of a unique entity all of its own, expressing its inherence qualities in the matter which draws around it.

The book also examines the effects of music, emotion and colors in regards to thought forms as well.  Some people feel that shadow people are creatures from another plane of existence that overlaps ours.  Oddly, others believe that shadow people are two dimensional entities that reside or pass through our three dimensional reality and are somehow tied into Grey Aliens.


This explanation is often tied into deep and twisted conspiracy buff theories and I personally don’t hold much to it. I personally prefer the tulpas theory for most shadow people experiences.


Remember, at any given time there may be more than just your own thought forms in a given area if that theory holds true. Tulpas may also be present during poltergeist outbreaks when people believe they are seeing demonic forms and monstrous creatures…if a thought form takes the form of your thoughts, and you are angry, distressed or worried, one must consider, what would anger look like given form? Or fear? Or passion? I can almost bet it wouldn’t be pretty.

Of course, these are all possible and none confirmed. Now that we have explored the paranormal possible causes, we also need to be balanced and examine logical explanations as it always best to eliminate all possible rational explanations first before jumping to paranormal conclusion.
Many different scientific principles can explain the effects experienced during shadow people encounters, including hallucinations and optical illusions brought on by different physiological or psychological conditions, drug use and or the interaction of external agents on the human body.

Also, images seen in the peripheral area (edge) of vision can be caused by what is termed pareidolia, which means in simple terms, when your brain incorrectly interprets complex lines, colors, light or shadow or texture that may appear to be something familiar…the common term used by us and the majority of other researchers was coined by Grant Wilson, matrixing.
Hypnagogia, what is known as “waking-sleep” is a condition in which a person is half way asleep and half way awake.  While in this state, people can be conscious and aware of their environment but also at the same time in a dream like state, where images from their own subconscious may be perceived; they often report lights, and shadows moving around them, or faces in the dark as well as a heavy feeling of impending dread.


This is one of the effects of sleep paralysis, as you noted earlier with the paralysis part coming from your body’s natural tendency to paralyze itself while in REM sleep to avoid reacting to internal dream stimuli. Sleep paralysis is another good possible explanation or even lucid dreaming, while rare, may be occurring in which it would almost be a waking dream.


So in the end, shadow people are as mysterious as ever, another mystery to be solved in time.

— Anthony Justus

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Thermodynamics and the Macroscopic Paranormal: Cold Spots.


Understanding the macroscopic paranormal in relation to cold spot phenomena. 




Many people in the field of the paranormal have encountered the infamous phenomenon known simply as “cold spots.”

Numerous theories have been put forth as to why these places of thermal variance are encountered, but to date, no one has really set them down beyond basic statements and in general terms. Recently, I was studying the laws of thermodynamics for a case, and I believe that I may have came up with a hypothesis that would fall in line with the known laws of thermodynamics and may explain a cold spot in scientific terms.

First, we should define what thermodynamics is.

Thermodynamics is the field of physics that describes and correlates the physical properties of macroscopic systems of matter and energy and their interaction and transference of energy in the form of thermal energy. A macroscopic system (also called a thermodynamic system) is a geometrically (measureable in three dimensional space time) notable piece or pieces of matter in coexistence with an infinite imperturbable environment.

For most people, that is a mouth full. In short, it is the study of how heat energy is transferred from matter to matter and the laws governing those exchanges, called thermodynamic processes.

There are four laws that govern thermodynamic processes in these systemic exchanges. We will examine in turn to get a better understanding of the basic principles of macroscopic system interaction. The first concept that we will deal with is temperature.

Temperature is generally defined as the heat or lack/loss of heat of an object, since cold does not scientifically exist. The Zeroth Law describes what temperature is.

The Zeroth Law states that “…when two systems are in equilibrium with a third, the first two systems must be in equilibrium with each other. This shared property, which can be measured and a definite numerical value ascribed to that measurement of the property. This measurement of the property is called temperature.”  This is a more precise definition than that used commonly.

So, if this is the definition of temperature, what is the definition of heat? Heat as a concept is very interesting indeed as it means something entirely different that what most people think of. Heat is commonly known as the opposite of cold, but thermodynamics gives us an entirely different definition of heat. Let’s look at it now.

Encarta Encyclopedia states that heat is “…in physics, is the transfer of energy from one part of a substance to another, or from one body to another by virtue of a difference in temperature. Heat is energy in transit; it always flows from a substance at a higher temperature to the substance at a lower temperature, raising the temperature of the latter and lowering that of the former substance, provided the volume of the bodies remains constant. Heat does not flow from a lower to a higher temperature unless another form of energy transfer, work, is also present.

Energy and Work also have very different definitions than most investigators and people attach to them. Again, according to Encarta:

Energy is capacity of matter to perform work as the result of its motion or its position in relation to forces acting on it.”

While work is slightly more complicated and is defined thus:

” …Is a product of a force applied to a body and the displacement of the body in the direction of the applied force. While work is done on a body, there is a transfer of energy to the body, and so work can be said to be energy in transit. The units of work are identical to those of energy.

If, for example, an object is lifted from the floor to the top of a table, work is done in overcoming the downward force of gravity, and the energy imparted to the body as work will increase its potential energy. Work is also expended when a force accelerates a body, such as the acceleration of an airplane because of the thrust forces developed by its jet engines….”

While this is interesting in and of itself, the next part of the definition is far more interesting from a paranormal perspective when you are not dealing with purely mechanical forces:

“… The force need not be simply a mechanical force, as in the case of lifting a body or accelerating a plane by jet reaction; it can also be an electrostatic, electrodynamic, or surface-tension force…”

In layman’s terms, energy is the ability to do work and work is defined as going against another force, for example gravity and heat is the result of energy being transferred back and forth from system to system until equilibrium is reached. So what is equilibrium?

Equilibrium is the condition of a system in which competing influences (variables) are balanced evenly. When a macroscopic system shifts with an irreversible reaction, equilibrium is reached and no further change in the system is possible.

A variable, by the way, is a factor used to describe a macroscopic system’s state of equilibrium and include things such as temperature, pressure, volume, density, etc, in relationship to the environment.

Heat and work therefore are the mechanisms by which two or more systems may exchange energy, which leads us to the next law.

The next law of thermodynamics is perhaps the one most often quoted (and mis-quoted no less) by investigators as proof of survival and while it does have bearing on that notion of the human soul, is it more appropriately fitting to the concept from which is was pulled: the transference of heat energy from one system to another.

This law states ” …because energy cannot be created or destroyed, the amount of heat transferred into a system plus the amount of work done on the system must result in a corresponding increase of internal energy in the system.”

In simple English, this means energy (heat in this case) cannot be created or destroyed but merely transferred from system to system, creating an equal and opposite reaction in the corresponding systems, with an increase in one, (the receiving system) and a decrease in the other (the transference system).

Following this law, is the next rule of thermodynamics, which precisely defines the property, which is called entropy.

Entropy could be thought of as a measurement of how close a given system is to equilibrium; it can also be thought of as a measurement of a system’s amount of disorder. Interestingly, nature itself seems to prefer chaos and disorder as opposed to a true equilibrium, with each external system balancing out the other in a system of chaotic checks and balances.  Chaos theory describes this fascinating set of interactions and patterns but more on that later in another article, perhaps at another time.

The law itself states that “the total entropy of any isolated system always increases over time, approaching a maximum value.”

What this means is that a system will continue in disorder until it finally reaches balance or equilibrium and as stated earlier, once a system reaches this state, it cannot change. This law shows in that in the absence of work, heat cannot be transferred from a region at a lower temperature to one at a higher temperature, however it would be possible for a higher temperature system to give energy (heat) to a lower temperature system.

The last law of thermodynamics that we must understand before moving on to my theory is that the previous law suggests the existence of an absolute zero of temperature and the last law itself states:

“….absolute zero cannot be obtained by any procedure in a finite number of steps and can only be approached arbitrarily closely but never reached.”

What the previous statement suggests is that temperature can be reduced or increased by taking energy out of a system by making the motion of molecules at the molecular level speed up (increase of heat) or slow down (loss of heat) and that absolute zero is close to impossible under normal conditions.

It’s a large amount of information to process but you are now going to see how I used the laws of thermodynamics to describe how a cold spot is formed in a hypothesis that I call the Thermodynamic Macroscopic Transference Hypothesis.

With the preceding statements and facts in mind, let’s for a moment hypothetically state that we have three isolated systems in a given environment: a living human and a non-corporeal entity, aka a ghost and the air between them. All of these are forms of matter, one solid, two not.

The entity in question could transfer heat energy from the human by slowing down the molecules in the air and speeding up the molecules on the human (work) thus creating friction as heat is transferred into or to the entity, drawing it from the human, creating an increase in entropy in all three systems…the human, the ghost and the air.

The decrease in heat from the human would create a feeling of intense cold, while the warmer air between the ghost and human would act like a storage battery for the ghost to use while it draws the heat from the human to itself to use as energy to do work aka, manipulate the environment.

This entropy would continue until the human moves out of the range of the entity in question or disrupts the transfer, which would destabilize the increasing entropy and restore the natural equilibrium in all three systems. If a ghost has taken its fill of heat energy stores and utilizes them to make a physical change in its environment, then the expenditure of that stored energy to do work would drain it away, also restoring the native entropy and equilibrium in the entity. This exchange may be inverted as well, resulting in spots of sudden abnormal heat.

This may help explain the bone chilling cold that some victims of paranormal encounters report, many times whom are unable to shake the feeling or the sudden dense pockets of cold air as the entity uses transfers  of thermal energy to itself from its environment in a thermodynamic process between the two (possibly three) systems using electromagnetic movement of molecules.

While this may go some way towards explaining the mechanics, the process by which an entity would do this remains unknown but outlined above, it is fully in line with the laws of known thermodynamics and thus should be possible…of course this assumes that a non corporeal entity could exist and use heat (energy) in the first place.

—-Anthony Justus.






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Ghostbusters (2016) Review

Ghostbusters (2016).



The hate for this movie coming out is unlike anything I have ever seen for any movie franchise ever. This hate came from people calling themselves fans of the original and the cartoons. I admit, when I first saw some of the designs and such, I had extreme reservations. I believe I may have also said some pretty dry things about not looking forward to it but as time went on and we saw more, I started to understand the threads of the film, of the story that was being woven.

Growing up, I had two favorite cartoons and movies; ask my parents. Batman the Animated Series and Tim Burton’s excellent Batman movies and Ghostbusters and anything related therein. I even watched a few episodes of the unrelated 1970s live action show but to me, the Ghostbusters have always been the Boys in Grey (plus Janine. She was always a Ghostbuster to me and always will be). I had the toys. I watched the episodes until my mom probably was drove crazy and one Christmas (the best ever), my sister and I both got Proton Packs, traps and PKE meters. I’m telling you, we played with those toys more than anything else we ever had.

As I got older, I began to appreciate all the mature jokes and cerebral real world mythology that the cartoons and film pulled from and I realized that Ghostbusters, the cartoons especially, were not intended for kids. They were simply animated. Some of the episodes posed difficult questions about what it means to be alive or if we should fear death, others explored deep character arcs that proved to be incredibly poignant and made them three-dimensional people. We got stories that took us to the Other Side (even one where we went to Hell itself!) and others where we saw the Boys in Grey lay everything on the line and were ready to give their lives to save the world from mass destruction. If it weren’t for the humor, Ghostbusters would be sci-fi horror and there is no doubt in my mind without the jokes, the movies and the shows (especially Extreme Ghostbusters) would be downright terrifying. Monsters that rip your eyes out for looking at it? Yup. Hellraiser like demons invoked through the act of writing that came to our world, taking innocent people and cutting them up and twisting their bodies into living monsters? Yup. Historical figures that come back to right a real life wrong so that they can finally rest in peace? More than once. Casey Jones and the OK Corral shoot out ring a bell? How about the genius way the stories and technobabble was written? Again, the originals were lightning in a bottle.

Through the years, the Ghostbusters canon has existed in some form or another, from Marvel comics to the short-lived 88MPH studios run to the current (and still on going) IDW Ghostbusters series which is currently continuing the canon that the first two original movies and the realistic video game left off, leading to a wonderfully deep expanded universe that rivals Star Trek and Star Wars.


That said, I believe it is at the the heart of why so much hate was leveled at this movie. People were upset, understandably so. The words “remake” and “reboot” are probably the two most hated terms in Hollywood today and these remakes hardly ever come close to being good with the exception of the Star Trek films and there is a heated debate about them as well (I love them personally and look forward to more…I even fly a Kelvin Timeline T6 Heavy Command Constitution cruiser in Star Trek: Online as my main character’s ship, the U.S.S. Endurance). I was even more worried when I saw the casting, especially that of Melissa McCarthy. I did not know who any of these women were (and no, I do not care that the cast is made up of women. Why should that even matter? We never once questioned four dudes). I had never seen any of their previous work except McCarthy, who through my experience was mostly used in comedies for her slapstick and while she was very funny, I couldn’t picture her as a scientist, not even a quirky one like Ray.


Dr. Abby Yates (Melissa McCarthy)

The pictures leaked of the gear and I saw the proton pack, the trap and the PKE meters and especially the new ECTO-1. I saw small hints of the different canons of Ghostbusters history in them. Hints and throw backs to Extreme Ghostbusters, the animated series and even to the video game and IDW series. I saw that while most of the people were hating on it claimed to be fans, that they were so busy hating it and spewing racist, sexist junk that they never stopped to see what was happening. There was a deep respect for the roots of the story they were trying to tell and it was not apparent from the trailers (which do not do it justice).


Old vs new 

So I went and saw it yesterday and I finally let go of my expectations, wishful thinking and projected ideas. Please understand, I KNOW Ghostbusters. I know the characters, their histories, the lore. I wrote pages and pages of the Ghostbusters Fans Wiki, from mythology to technology. I can tell you how a proton pack works, I can describe to you ever class of spirit in the fictional Tobin’s Spirit Guide. I’ve written two full length Ghostbusters novellas, “Mutes” in which the Ghostbusters are called to Utah to help a rancher and his family under siege from what appear to be UFOs mutilating his cattle but are actually harbingers to something far worse and “Iconography”, the sequel to “Mutes” in which a rich collector steals an ancient statuette, unleashing a hellish curse on himself leaving Kylie and Bryan (the Rookie’s official name from the video game) to Deal with the mess while the other four Ghostbusters head to a paranormal conference and meet old faces, friends and foe alike but not all is going to be smooth sailing as there is something at the conference that is entirely unearthly.

“Mutes” and “Iconography” were part of a three-story series set in the IDW Ghostbusters universe with smatterings of the Real Ghostbusters tossed in. The third story was called “Hunger Strike” and it involved a wendigo getting set loose in Manhattan. Still working on that one by the way…the point is, I KNOW Ghostbusters. I had to, both as a fan and a writer.

From the moment the film opened and I saw what the story line was, I was IN. Without giving spoilers, its unique. Its not a remake of the first Ghostbusters film. Yes it shares threads but that’s it. Its its own unique tale and while the trailer did not do it justice, believe me, the jokes make much more sense in context with the full scenes and there are some genuinely creepy moments that the jokes do not make less creepy because they are so well done (case in point, the entire opening sequence and the ghost in the subway….he was definitely a 10+ on the creep-0-meter).


The gear itself evolves; we get to see it built from the floor up, see the effort it took and the history that made it all possible from the work of Abby and Erin. While my favorite character is Holtzmann (the brilliant if not slightly off her rocker nuclear engineer, inspired by my friend Alexandra Holzer who consulted on the film whose father in turn inspired Dan Akroyd, hence her name, HOLZmann), Abby (McCarthy) and Erin (Wiig) truly have an interesting arc through out the film that, especially after reading the novel, makes many of the scenes between them almost sad and yet you can see them re-bonding (sorry, no spoilers) throughout the film and its a gradual slow arc that pays off nicely in the final fight. Leslie, who plays Patty, is just as phenomenal.



While the other three have the brain in regards to science, Patty’s talents lay towards research and history (much liker OGB counter part, Dr. Winston Zeddemore who started out as former Marine and electronic warfare expert and construction worker and became a doctor of Egyptology and History, though whether Patty follows in his footsteps is to be seen and if she doesn’t, I love her how she is!).


Kevin…where to start with Kevin. He is not a Janine by any means. Janine was an expert and the office quickly fell into chaos without her and her bite and attitude more than once kept jerks in line, human or otherwise. She even hit on a demon-god, before blasting him into the next world. Kevin is sweet but stupid. To be blunt, there is no other way to stay it but he’s got little quirks and much like Abby (while the others find him annoying–she does too–), its good to give Kevin a chance because his dimwitted self does actually grow on you like I said and in the end, he proves that he’s willing to improve and might yet be the one thing that stands between mass hysteria and…well…more mass hysteria.


Slimer’s cameo is well done and isn’t overly hammy; it perfectly fits his origin and character to show up when and how he did PLUS his behavior is exactly like his video game counter part: not sweet and gushy like a puppy but not overtly malevolent, just incredibly mischievous and at one point, kind of creepy which is how Slimer should always be.

The villain is NOT the subway ghost (though he looks the part) and the villain is interesting, much like Peter MacNicol before him but not as outlandish. MacNicol’s Poha was never evil, he just became a pawn. This film’s villain, when you look at the clues and the things he does and says, his behavior projects exactly what he is: a broken, utterly destroyed human being who is very angry and is willing to cause millions of people to die, suffering as they do and then prolong their agony as long as he can. He’s got a score to settle with humanity and it reminds us that “it’s always the quiet ones” isn’t always funny.

The effects are great, the mythology is kept intact, the equipment’s design it turns out was inspired by real world particle physics and the production company had scientists come in and advise on the construction of the packs and the science behind them and scarily enough, the science is legit. It could be done, given enough work and effort to build working packs. All the equations you see on the white board are real physics equations. The novelization is worth a read too; it expands greatly on the relationship between Abby and Erin as well as gives insight into Patty and Holzmann. There is a scene in the film in which Erin describes what got her interested in Ghostbusting and the paranormal and while I was watching it, I kept waiting for someone to crack a joke or say something funny.


They never did. It was a serious moment, and it was one the more poignant moments in the franchise history since we finally got to see what motivated a Ghostbuster to do what they do and much like Egon in the animated series, her experience is a truly terrifying one that gets fully explained in the books and I realized that while Holtzmann was my favorite to watch, Erin came in second because of the depth of her character and what she had gone through, having gone through similar experiences myself which also led to my study of the paranormal. The scene where the soon to be Ghostbusters come to investigate the haunted mansion from the opening sequence and the guys just throw the keys on the ground and say “Nope. Not going. You have fun. It’s all yours.” got to me as well; I’ve had that same experience from a client who contacted my team years ago for help with strange things going on in their house. The client literally handed us the keys and left. He was scared out of his mind and the opening ghost is no Eleanor Twitty, a sweet gentle librarian guarding her stacks….definitely not.

All told, once I let go of my expectations, I was very pleasantly surprised, not only by the writing, the story itself, the effects, the depth of respect that was put forth into the film but especially by all the actors and I’ll say MOST IMPRESSED by Melissa McCarthy. She did not play the hammy slapstick laugh factory for a change. She wasn’t a walking joke but rather a fairly normal human being with a sensor of humor that did not overpower her humanity. I actually bought that she was a scientist.


Just like the final fight, Ghostbusters (2016) is a blast and if you are a fan, go see it. You WILL like it. All the original cast cameos are wonderful, especially Bill Murray’s (naturally) and Harold Ramis even has TWO, though the first is a bit of a hit in the feels. Ernie and Annie are superb and Sigourney, wow. Just those brief moments were pure GOLD. Morranis would have made it complete but as it stands, Ghostbusters is a helluva good time. Go see it. Enjoy it. I sure did!




That post credits scene was perfect and sets up sequels!!

— Anthony Justus.

More about the science behind “Ghostbusters”:

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North Carolina: Hate Crime and My Thoughts.

NC State Seal B and W

For those of you who are readers of mine for all things scary and paranormal, I apologize to have to do this again but I feel I must. Once again, laws have been passed that do direct harm to people like me, people who did nothing wrong but be born the wrong way and I will not stand for it. I absolutely believe in loving my fellow man and these issues are important to me. If you feel that you can no longer follow me if I am not posting strictly paranormal topics to my personal blog, then I understand and wish you well. This post will contain graphic images. You are warned.

A bit of background.

On Wednesday, the NC legislature passed House Bill 2 and NC governor McCrory signed it into law. It was passed unanimously because the Democrats objected, were overruled and walked out in protest. Business after business is protesting this. Movie companies and major contributors to the NC economy are protesting this. None of it mattered. All that mattered was that the Republicans got their chance to hurt people. And they did. House Bill 2 is now law. It strips away every protection across the state for all LGBT people, even local ones. It makes it a crime for a transgender person to use any bathroom but that on their original birth certificate. It gives businesses and facilities the legal right to turn people away because the person is LGBT and therefore, would offend the businesses or facilities religious beliefs in serving that person. This law is so broad it could mean anything from restaurants to hospitals and those things are just the start of the insidious law.

When I was in college, gay rights were a frequent topic of my thesis papers. This action we are seeing now from our law makers, is the exact same type of hateful reactionary action taken by white supremacists back when integration was first made the law.

A similar incident of law making just happened in Georgia. Two gay men were at home, in their home, not bothering anyone, and their mother’s boyfriend walked in to their home, and threw boiling water onto them as they slept, cursing at them and when he was arrested, he said it was just a little hot water, that they’d be fine and that he did it because of his Biblical belief that being gay was wrong.  More on that story here:


The state will not be pressing hate crime charges against this man because the state of Georgia just repealed any protections it had for LGBT people at the state level, just like North Carolina did on Wednesday.  Only 17 states in the U.S.have hate-crimes laws that cover both sexual orientation and gender identity. However, if the federal government becomes involved, Blackwell could be prosecuted under federal hate-crimes law. That situation seems likely since the state itself will not be prosecuting him.

Now you know the background. I’ve already responded to Georgia via phone calls and letters to the governor. Here is my response to the North Carolina situation.

This is an open letter I just sent to NC Governor McCrory. I also urge you to call his office and let him know your thoughts. 919-814-2050 as I will also be doing.

Gov. McCrory,

I do not know where to start this message. I am literally speechless. That’s a rare thing for one as opinionated as myself. Consider it a privelage that you have rendered me so. I have a request. I need your help to understand the thinking, the thought process that went into approving House Bill 2.

I have a dear friend in North Carolina who is LGBT. He is a professor, a teacher, one who shapes our new generations and he is a great man. He is one of the rare teachers that actually loves to teach, engages his students, challenges them and is challenged in turn. Its because of people like him that the state of North Carolina will be a leader in the future of technology and education.

Or would have been had you and the Republicans in your legislature not painted a legal target on his back and that of every other LGBT person who lives in the state. Do you comprehend what you have done?

You have just given every business, every person and legal entity, from 911 to hospitals to housing authorities and foster systems and employers state-wide the ability to deny LGBT people assistance, to fire them or reject them based on the idea that being LGBT is a sin against the Christian Bible (let’s not mince words, governor. That was the basis here, wasn’t it, the Bible? I cannot see another rational explanation for this lunacy).

My friend and many like him have already been through absolute hell and having finally gotten to a safe space in life where their lives were looking positive and you and your legislators, your party, go and rip it away from them, all because of your religion and more than likely, your sponsors and those who make large donations to you from major conservative lobby tanks, like Focus on the Family.

I will never comprehend why money and social status is more important than loving your fellow human beings as your own. I mean, I’m not a Christian, but wasn’t that what that one middle eastern fellow said? Love your fellow man as your own? What was his name? Josh? JESUS. That’s his name. Jesus.

Not that for a moment I think you truly sincerely have moral or religious objections to LGBT people. You are just sucking the dicks of your sponsors and lobbyists so that they keep that money flowing to you like the whore of Babylon.

When I asked you at the start of this letter if you could explain to me the logical rational reasoning behind you signing this law into existence, I made an error. There is no way you can EVER explain this to me. There is no way you can ever make this action make rational logical sense because it doesn’t. This law and the behavior surrounding it wasn’t born of rational thought. It was born out of the need to protest and scream, to throw a tantrum because you aren’t getting your way, just as the south did back when integration was made law. Its the exact same thing.

You shame our country. You shame North Carolina. You will cost your state millions, maybe billions, in revenue and still you are willing to destroy your state to stick to your guns and hurt people. Hell, maybe you will change your mind when those dollar signs stop flowing and you begin to feel the pinch in your pocketbook.

And you wonder why people like me, born and raised in the Christian faith, turn on it and leave it behind like a snake skin.

People like you are why.

Never yours,

Anthony G. Milhorn.


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